EQSI Project Management on behalf of Yayasan Kalla, welcomes applications from qualified candidate (s) or firm(s) to conduct study as per the the term of reference below. 

Interested applicants should submit their application by email to, cc: indicated “Landscape and Lifescape Analysis” at the email subject. Closing date: May 16, 2016.

Terms of Reference

Landscape and Lifescape Analysis for EQSI Project

Project & Organization Background
EQSI, Economic, Quality and Sustainability Improvement from Community Centered Cocoa Fermentation Stations, Diversified Agro-Forestry and Agribusiness Systems and Social Development is a collaboration project between MCA-I, Kalla Foundation and its consortium: Kalla Kakao Industry and Lembaga Ekonomi Masyarakat Sejahtera (LEMS).

The project aims at a future of sustainable Cocoa farming, with agro-forestry based on economic development and poverty reduction for villages/sub-districts that are substantially dependent on Cocoa production. The scope is for reforesting degraded lands, improving agriculture, promoting agro-forestry and intercropping agribusiness on Cocoa farms, improving hydrologic conditions, and providing community centered fermentation centers to raise quality and value of Cocoa produced.

The project addresses technical and economic requirements, provides for environmental and spatial land use issues, provides learning, and considers potential risks and social and gender impacts and opportunities, will be implemented over 2.25 years, across three districts in 20 priority villages in Southeast Sulawesi Province of Indonesia.

Our Sustainable Agriculture Project, set in selected Cocoa-growing landscapes of Sulawesi Island, aligns to and supports MCA-I’s Compact between USA and Indonesia. Green Prosperity (GP) the largest project of the Compact, seeks to address critical economic growth constraints while supporting the government of Indonesia’s commitment to a more sustainable, less carbon-intensive future. Assistance given will be enduring cooperation focused on sustainable economic, agro-forestry and agribusiness and social development, especially for communal efficiency and technical strengthening of post-harvest practices - particularly for Cocoa fermentation methods.

Information about the organizations:

Kalla Foundation was established on April 24, 1984. It works with the vision to improve education and welfare of the poor, and protect the environment for sustainability and integrity of ecosystem.


Millennium Challenge Account - Indonesia (MCA-Indonesia) is a trustee institution that represents the Government of Indonesia to implement a five-year (2013-2018) Millennium Challenge Corporation's Compact Program, a major pillar of the United States-Indonesia Comprehensive Partnership and the largest single pledge made by the United States to Indonesia to date.

MCA-Indonesia has three projects under Compact Program: Green Prosperity, Community-based Health and Nutrition to Reduce Stunting and Procurement Modernization. Our projects are designed, managed and implemented by Indonesians, for the Indonesian people. Our most important development work happens where it should be: the districts and the villages. Our goal is to reduce poverty through economic growth. Our program is country-driven, reform-centered, and results-focused in order to maximize its effectiveness and long-term sustainability.

Title of assignment
Project EQSI Landscape and Lifescape (L/L) Analysis
ToR Reference Number

Date of issue:

10 May 2016

Cocoa is an important cash crop in Indonesia, cultivated by an estimated one million smallholder farmers. It is an important economic driver in rural Sulawesi Island. Indonesia is the world's third largest Cocoa bean producer behind Cote d'Ivore and Ghana, in a market where supply is tight. Changes in Indonesian policy and export taxes have led to significant increases in Indonesia's Cocoa processing capacity, supporting many jobs. But Cocoa smallholders suffer from declines in production, negatively impacting household income. The two most significant reasons for low production are aging trees and pest infestations. It is estimated pests reduce yield by 40%.

Globally, in the last century Cocoa farming has been responsible for substantial deforestation, land degradation and adverse impacts on atmospheric CO2. Indonesia’s modern Cocoa boom started in the early 1990s, now many trees have reached an age of 20 to 25 years, becoming no longer viably productive. Cocoa uses more land than other crops in the project’s target districts, Kolaka Utara, Kolaka Timur and Kolaka (Sulawesi Tenggara).

The broad social context in which Indonesia’s rural households seek to lift themselves from poverty creates formidable development challenges. Low literacy and numeracy levels and weak participation in local development planning and decision-making are strongly linked to a social structure and frequently pro-male societal norms and values. Land ownership is badly skewed and uncertain tenure can be an issue. In Indonesia’s hilly sub-districts of Sulawesi Tenggara, differences in the size and productivity of landholdings relate directly to food security and income distribution. In an average year, some 85% of hill and surrounding sub-district households do not produce enough food to feed themselves adequately. The Government of Indonesia (GoI) has responded to this situation with the goal of sustainable poverty reduction through creation of economic opportunities for the poor and marginalized households, and by encouraging their participation in development activities in agro-forestry and agribusiness sectors.

Encouraging sustainable management of natural resources by giving community user groups usufruct rights to national forest can be Indonesia’s creative response to the forest degradation that has occurred through encroachment, mining and overuse. The GoI agrees that an effective way of supporting sustainable resource management practices is to help Community Groups become sustainable institutions. Project EQSI design and implementation supports this.

The GoI initiatives for Local Self-Governance supports decentralization and devolution of powers and responsibilities to local bodies. With that, Project EQSI has confirmed support from the districts (kabupaten) Kolaka Timur, Kolaka and Kolaka Utara as well as the Project's targe sub-districts (kecamatan). We have obtained individual signed letters of support confirming the mutual commitment between the Project EQSI consortium and each village head (kepala desa), pledging willingness to support the bid preparation and project implementation within each sub-district. The letters of support confirm the village heads' understanding of Project EQSI scope and Green Prosperity co-operation requirements. At national level, there is an enabling environment for local-level community forestry, sustainable agriculture and watershed management strategies.
In structured interviews and informal discussions with stakeholders and three participatory workshops held at national, sub-district and village level, the EQSI consortium team captured the following interrelated sets of problems:

  • There is scope to improve coordination and functional linkages between local, sub-district and national levels that impede the use of lessons drawn from previous community forestry, agribusiness and watershed management projects.
  • Poor penetration and inconsistent activity from NGOs and Cocoa traders and processors for holistic solutions to the Cocoa farming sustainability problem.
  • Declining income with few alternative sustainable income generation opportunities for smallholder Cocoa farmers and forest users, particularly for the poor and marginalized.
  • Limited capacity in local organizations to plan, promote and implement sustainable land use practices in Cocoa farming, silviculture, national forest areas and watersheds.
  • Increasing environmental degradation coupled with low income potential, especially in upper slope communities.
The consequences are:
  • Issues for governance and equity within Community Groups, leading to risks that community management will not continue to receive sufficient local-level commitment. 
  • Insufficient and uneven availability of support for planting material (nurseries or bibit, scions, seeds and clones) for Cocoa and other agro-forestry species, fertilizers, training, and appropriate farm chemicals.
  • Rural poverty; livelihoods are not enhanced and vulnerability to food insecurity remains high.
  • Pressure on natural resources continues; reducing forest cover, habitat, biodiversity and other intrinsic values.
  • Damage to the environment, reduced Carbon Cycle for sequestering of carbon, and increased GHG.
There is a high dependence on family labor and reluctance to use hired labor. Various non-production demands on labor time also exist resulting in labor shortages for Cocoa production. Gender division of labor for particular activities may also constrain labor supply. Both men and women work on Cocoa lands, with men typically responsible for planting and pruning while women weed; both harvest. Women tend to be responsible for finances in Cocoa households. The consequence of this is that crop management inputs are limited and productivity is low relative to potential yields.
Labor shortage is a major constraint to increasing Cocoa production and fermenting Cocoa. Labor shortages may be associated with one or more of the following factors:
  • Lack of cooperation among household members in Cocoa production 
  • Reduced access to labor from the extended family
  • Rising cost of hired labor (there is limited and sporadic use of hired labor, usually for specific tasks including harvesting, establishment and rehabilitation of Cocoa)
  • High mobility (out-migration) of family members, especially males.
Combining labor shortages, declining production, and the slender premium paid for fermented beans, result in the majority of Indonesia’s Cocoa harvest not being fermented and not meeting requirements for good quality.

There is NO chocolate flavor in Cocoa beans without fermentation.

Description of the assignment

Overall programme objectives
MCA Indonesia’s SGIP and ESMS (Environment and Social Management System) require that selected Grantees will undertake Landscape and Lifescape Analysis in all GP investment projects, the report and revised/ expanded project design will be the first deliverable after signing grant agreement and mobilization.

Lifescape Analysis is a participatory assessment of the people (women, men and different social groups), institutions (formal and informal) and relationships within, and with, the landscape. The analysis seeks to understand how social structures and social context affect the livelihoods of communities and, in turn, shape the natural resources and the potential to manage them well within a particular landscape. This analysis identifies key social and gender constraints, ways to mitigate risks of social jealousy/conflict, and reduce elite capture of benefits. Landscape Analysis is an assessment of bio-physical and agro-ecological system, consisting of topography, agricultural lands, water-bodies, forest, vegetation, land use, and settlements in the GP project location area.

The objective of the combined L/L Analysis is to understand in detail environmental, social, gender and institutional issues in the targeted intervention areas in order to inform/revise/expand a project design that ensures equal access and opportunities to women, poor and marginalized groups and takes into consideration the environmental constraints and opportunities within the investment landscape for the GP Project. This analysis will help the process of community consensus/agreement on proposed project, as well as informing beneficiary selection, understanding their needs and constraints, ways to improve their economic productivity and income by offering a menu of choices; develop benefit sharing process with communities, governance and social accountability mechanisms and identify key partners in the local areas.

Specific objectives of this assignment
Project EQSI requires appropriately qualified and experienced Agroforestry and Rural Development Specialists to undertake a Cocoa and Agricultural Sector Analysis in conjunction with Project EQSI key personnel. The final analysis piece will be a report, with recommendations, to be submitted to Project EQSI Consortium and MCA-I.

Proposed work to contribute to the Cocoa and Agriculture Sector Analysis may include:
  • Workshops with Project EQSI (and MCA-I if required) staff and other stakeholders to discuss issues and share information;
  • Desk review work, based on evaluations and assessments to date of MCA-I’s GP programs;
  • Synthesis of other analysis conducted by international organisations, NGOs, academic organisations and/or contracted specialists;
  • Field trips in Sulawesi Tenggara, including with MCA-I programs;
  • Focus group discussions in representative villages;
  • Case studies of other rural development programs in Sulawesi Tenggara as well as other international Cocoa and rural development programs.
The following questions will guide the analysis:
  • What are the key gaps and constraints (socio-economic, institutional and agronomic) in the cocoa and agri-food sector, given current government and donor institutions, policies and programs?
  • What is the balance between subsistence and market-oriented agriculture in Sulawesi Tenggara? Where is there potential for improved growth, efficiency or innovation?
  • What is the role of gender and youth in subsistence and market cocoa and agriculture, and what policies are in place at present?
  • How can interventions in cocoa and agriculture best target sustainability?
  • Where can we make the best impact on poverty reduction for cocoa smallholders, given binding constraints?
  • Would a strategic framework on broader rural development enhance the impact of MCA-I’s work in cocoa and agriculture?
Areas and sub-topics that the analysis should consider include:
  • Cocoa Farming practices, seeds, agricultural inputs, extension services, seed and post-harvest storage, formal and informal marketing and value chains, irrigation, water resources and land care;
  • Income-generating agricultural activities, including export opportunities;
  • Other agricultural sub-sectors, such as livestock, fisheries and agroforestry; 
  • Farmers’ decision making: incentives, risk management and production mix;
  • Labour and employment in agriculture, including rural-urban migration, linkages and productivity;
  • Gender in cocoa farming rural development, including household roles in subsistence agriculture and market processes; 
  • Climate change adaptation and linkages to livelihoods, including around water resources and changing rainfall patterns; 
  • Current programs and policies of GoI and other development partners, and institutional capacity in relevant GoI bodies;
Key crops;
  • Cross-sectoral linkages of the cocoa agriculture sector with sectors such as water and sanitation, infrastructure, health and education, particularly as they relate to cocoa smallholders rural livelihoods.
The specialists will report directly, and on technical matters, to Project EQSI Project Director and will work closely with the MCA-I team.
They will:
  • Facilitate team workshops with stakeholders where key decisions will be made in the development of this analytical piece;
  • Author the report, synthesising pieces of analysis as well as findings from consultations, field visits and literature review, with close consultation with Project EQSI team and MCA-I.
Project EQSI may also contract specialised short-term inputs from experts in specific fields as required, to help answer the key analytical questions. The Specialists will help to identify the work required and will support the preparation of Terms of Reference for these positions.


A Separate L-L Analysis will be carried out for each unique and representative element of the target project landscape so Sampling framework is stratified for:
  • Stakeholder Assessment,
  • Baseline Study,
  • Livelihoods Component,
  • Governance Component,
  • Environment Component,
  • District Boundaries, Highland, Lowland
  • Cocoa lands,
  • Non-forest Lands,
  • Protection Forest,
  • Production Forest – including Cocoa,
  • Degraded Lands,
  • Convertible Production Forest,
  • Limited Production Forest,
  • Forest Reserves,
  • Agro-ecological zones,
  • Socio-cultural-economic factors,
  • Successful and Failing Cocoa Producing Areas,
  • Value chain producers,
  • Related significant income-earning activities.
The results of the analysis will be conveyed using a template prepared by MCA-Indonesia.

The report will:
  • Detail information gathered on different landscape and lifescape elements,
  • Highlight differences in risks posed to each landscape and lifescape element,
  • Develop a strategy on how risks, if present, will be mitigated.
Desk Literature Review
As the first phase of the L-L Analysis, conduct a literature review in order to identify any/all critical information on the environmental, social, economic and institutional conditions and challenges within the project location (investment landscape) that need to be addressed in order to implement a successful Sustainable Cocoa Partnership project.

This first phase desk review will include review of the literature on communities, small holder farmers, their economic activities, institutions, topography and natural resources.
Conduct Fieldwork:

The second phase of the L-L Analysis will involve fieldwork to be undertaken in representative sample locations to validate the desk review findings, understand challenges and risks at the field level, appraise both successful and failing similar and related programs for understanding key issues in order support the development and inclusion of key need based interventions, an inclusive and effective beneficiary selection and stakeholder involvement process

For communities targeted for fieldwork, produce at least one community/social map, one natural resource map, one livelihood assessment, seasonal calendars and activity profiles of the community, and one transect walk.

Produce a series of detailed maps that define the geographic boundaries of the Investment Landscape (IL) and Development Landscape (DL) with topography, natural and land use resource mapping (including forest area and actual forest cover, and any peat lands), major rivers and roads, location of beneficiaries, community livelihood patterns, and administrative boundaries.

L-L Analysis Findings Report

Produce a L-L Analysis Findings Report(s) that will :
  • Summarize findings;
  • Include maps that cover investment landscape with topography, natural and land use resource mapping (including forest area and actual forest cover, and any peat lands), major rivers and roads, location of beneficiaries, community livelihood patterns, administrative boundaries
  • Identify key social and environmental constraints and opportunities; and
  • Document how the findings refined (or will refine) the final project design and oversight strategy.
Various participatory rural appraisal (PRA) tools such as focus group discussion (FGDs); key informant interview (KIIs); natural resource mapping, participatory community/social mapping; livelihood mapping, vulnerability and trend analysis; transect walk; and participant observation will be used for L/L analysis. The firms working on L/L need to develop a field guide on Tool package that will include the FGD guide, the semi-structured KII questionnaire, and gender analysis tools such as
  • Activity profiles;
  • Access and control profiles;
  • Socio-political profiles; and
  • Income and expenditure profiles.
Workshops and participatory forums at the national and Landscape levels will be organized to present the key findings and recommendations from the Lifescape analysis. The workshops and forums will seek to refine and validate the analytical methodology through additional feedback in small and large group discussions.

The following PRA tools need to be used...
  • Gendered natural resource assessment. Involves facilitating a session where participants are asked to map out key structures and natural resources in their surrounding communities. During the exercise, researcher note differences in preferences and identification of natural resources between men and women and how this relates to gendered roles, responsibilities and decision- making. Following the exercise, researchers conduct a series of walks in the areas to better understand participants and to better visualize problems and opportunities in their communities. Method allows researchers to study the values placed by participants on existing resources and their interaction with the environment, what policies guide them, and who has influence over them.
  • Transect walks and direct observation. These are systematic walks with key informants through the area of interest, observing, asking, listening, looking, and seeking problems and solutions. The findings can be mapped on a transect diagram. Most transect walks result in the outsiders discovering surprising local practices such as indigenous conservation practices, multiple uses of plants, and a great variety of crops. 
  • Wealth rankings and social/community maps. Wealth ranking is used to classify households according to relative wealth or well-being. Informants sort cards, each with one household name on it, into piles. The wealthiest are put at one end, the poorest at the other, and as many piles as desired are made. The process is repeated with at least three informants. Another method is to conduct the ranking directly on a social map. Villagers are then asked to indicate on the houses the relative wealth classes. Individual assets such as land ownership, animals, and tools can be marked for each household. Wealth rankings are useful for leading into other discussions on livelihoods and vulnerability; producing a baseline against which future intervention impact can be measured; providing a sample frame to cross-check the relative wealth of informants who have been or will be interviewed; and producing local indicators of welfare. 
  • Key informants interview (KII). This is guided interviewing and listening in which only some of the questions and topics are predetermined; other questions arise during the interview. The interviews appear informal and conversational, but are actually carefully controlled and structured. Using a guide or checklist, the multidisciplinary team poses open-ended questions and probes topics as they arise. New avenues of questioning are pursued as the interview develops. KIIs are a central part of all participatory methods.
  • Seasonal calendars and activity profiles. Seasonal constraints and opportunities can be diagrammed month by month throughout the year. Ceremonies can be used as a cross-check so that names of months are agreed upon.
  • Ecological oral history. Method follows a framework similar to a semi-structured interview, but the focus is grounded in the story-telling of participant’s environment. Qualitative method that allows for the researcher to assess changes in the environmental landscape from the perspective of individuals who have lived on the land for a long period of time and have a significant relationship with the land. 
  • Time lines and local histories. Historical analyses have been found to be a good icebreaker for field exercises and include detailed accounts of the past, of how things have changed, particularly focusing on relationships and trends. These include technology histories and review, crop histories and biographies, livestock breed histories, labour availability, trees and forest histories, education change, and population change.
Risks and Assumptions


  • Relevant key staff of Ministry of Health, Supervising Agency, do not monitor the mission;
  • Low transfer of knowledge during the execution;
  • Limited collaboration from the different stakeholders of the mission.
  • The MoH and other stakeholders involved implements the project after its approval. 
  • The next government maintains its commitment towards reaching the MDG objectives.
Coverage of the study
  • 3 districts (Kolaka Timur, Konawe and Konawe Selatan), 20 villages, of South-East Sulawesi, Indonesia