SNV World Job Consultant: Formative Research on Sanitation Behaviours - Lampung & West Sumatera Provinces - Kerja Ngo

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SNV World Job Consultant: Formative Research on Sanitation Behaviours - Lampung & West Sumatera Provinces

Position Title: Formative Research on Sanitation Behaviours

Type of Contract: Consultancy

Location: Lampung and West Sumatera Provinces

Maximum working day: Around 3 months

Contract Duration: As soon as possible - 16 June 2017

Closing Date: 07 March 2017

Term of Reference (ToR)
Formative Research on Sanitation Behaviors in Lampung Province (Lampung Selatan and Pringsewu) and West Sumatera (Padang Pariaman and Sijunjung) March 2017


SNV is an international not-for-profit development organisation, working in 38 countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. SNV specializes in supporting the resourcefulness of development actors by developing local capacities, improving performance and services, strengthening governance systems, helping to create access for excluded groups and by making markets work for the poor. Our global team of advisors use their specialist sector and change expertise in Agriculture, Renewable Energy and WASH to facilitate sustainable change in the livelihoods of millions of people living in poverty.

Voice for Change (V4C) Partnership Program
Open defecation is practiced by 20% of Indonesia's population. The rate goes up to 30% in rural areas and in some districts; it is as high as 60%. To tackle this problem, the national Government established the STBM programme in 2006. The STBM programme is a non-subsidized, behavior change driven, community wide sanitation approach. It constitutes the core of the national sanitation strategy and is to be implemented by Local Governments in all 508 districts of Indonesia. Where implemented, it has demonstrated sound and sustainable results. However, the scale of its implementation has been limited and so the country failed to halve open defecation and to achieve MDG 7 in 2015. Today, still 51 million Indonesians do not have access to a sanitation facility.

SNV is launching in 2016 a five year programme entitled Voice for Change Partnership (V4C). The programme will be implemented in 6 countries: Burkina-Faso, Honduras, Ghana, Kenya, Rwanda and Indonesia. In Indnesia, one of the topics that will be addressed through the programme are Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) specifically in sanitation sector. The V4C programme aligns with Sanitasi Total Berbasis Masyarakat (STBM) of the Indonesian governments and it will contribute for the achievement of the national target of 100% sanitation coverage by 2019 as well as to SDG 6, notably target 6.2 "Achieve access to adequate and equitable sanitation & hygiene for all and end open defecation, paying special attention to the needs of women and girls and those in vulnerable situations by 2030".

SNV Netherlands Development Organisation is starting up the V4C programme for WASH in 4 locations in Sumatera Barat and Lampung: Padang Pariaman, Sijunjung, Pringsewu and Lampung Selatan. Ministry of Health (MOH) leads the program in collaboration with Bappenas, Home Affairs (MOHA), Public Works (MPW) and Education (MOE). The V4C programme will have to provide evidence that highlights the importance of sanitation for human, environmental and economic development and that demonstrate the relevance and adequateness of the STBM programme to deliver sustainable and cost-efficient results in the above-mentioned locations.

The overall objective of this formative research is to identify motivations, ability, and opportunity of the selected sanitation behavior in the program locations in eight sub-districts within two districts of the Lampung Province and two districts of West Sumatera Province:

  • Sub-district Pagelaran Utara dan Sub-district Ambarawa in District Pringsewu,Lampung Province. 
  • Sub-district Sidomulyo and Sub-district Rajabasa in District Lampung Selatan,Lampung Province.
  • Sub-district Enam Lingkung dan Sub-district Ulakan tapakis in District Padang Pariaman,West Sumatera Province.
  • Sub-district Lubuk Tarok dan Sub-district Sumpur Kudus in District Sijunjung,West Sumatera Province.

The intended outcome from the research is to provide information that can be used to develop a behavior change communication (BCC) strategy that effectively addresses the target population's obstacles and potential for change in what concerns proper sanitation behavior. It should also contribute to identify the best channels and relevant stakeholders to be involved in the strategy.

The specific objectives of the formative research are as follows:
To comprehensibly identify the determinants of selected sanitation behavior for the target group in terms of opportunity, ability and motivations (and inhibiting factors) 
Identify the potential areas for behavior change communication strategies to be developed
The report should cover comprehensive and well-structured analysis of the target behavior for the target population using the SANIFOAM framework that analyses the behavior determinants in terms of opportunities, abilities and motivations disaggregated by gender; Prioritization of the behavioral determinants to enable behavior change communication objectives to be developed for sustained outcomes; and Finalized and tested research tools
and protocol.

All document prepared should be in Bahasa, with report summary of 2 pages in English. For discussion/dissemination purpose, a presentation in PowerPoint should be prepared in English and Bahasa.

The formative research will need to use the SANIFOAM framework as a means of organizing and analyzing the behavioral determinants as represented below.

Behavioral determinants are the factors that can facilitate or inhibit a behavior of interest among a certain population. For sanitation, these determinants can be internal (such as beliefs about feces) or external (such as sanctions for open defecation). Tools and data collection approaches will need to be selected and tailored accordingly.

Broadly speaking these relate to:
Opportunity: Institutional or structural factors that influence an individual's chance to perform a behavior. Determinants within Opportunity include: access/ availability, product attributes, social norms and sanctions/enforcement.

The key question here is does the individual have the chance to perform the behavior?

Ability: An individual's skills and proficiency to perform a behavior. Determinants within Ability include: knowledge, skills & self-efficacy, social support, roles & decisions and affordability.

The key question here is the individual capable of performing it.

Motivation: The drive, wishes, urges, or desires that influence an individual to perform a behavior. Determinants within motivation include: attitudes and beliefs, values, emotional/physical/social drivers, competing priorities, intention and willingness to pay. 

The key question here is does the individual want to perform the behavior?

Figure 1: SaniFOAM Framework

In addition to developing the research questions, the consultant should expect to undertake desk research, focus group discussions and semi-structured interviews with key actors. The consultant is strongly advised to build on existing data and tools where possible. The key actors targeted are: community, and local government (district, sub-district and
village level).

The consultant will be required to develop a research protocol which details the methodology, hypothesis and tools to be employed at each stage of the research. 

It is expected that a contract will be signed by March 2017, with work commencing in 2nd week of March 2017. After receiving comments from SNV, final versions of the report and the data should be delivered by end of May 2017.

The consultant are expected to deliver 2 reports (one for West Sumatera and one for Lampung) that meet the following conditions:

  • An executive summary (in English)
  • A methodological chapter describing the conceptual approach used, methods and tools, as well as steps taken in conducting the research, challenges and limitations of the findings
  • Opportunities, abilities and motivations of the populations of the selected districts to perform the desired sanitation and hygiene behaviors clearly identified, explained and contextualized
  • Recommendations for addressing the behavior constraints/explore opportunities identified in point 3
  • In annex: research tools, field work logbook (listing number and location of FGDS and KII, and number of participants in FGDs and KII, distinguishing male/female) 

The consultant should be a highly experienced professionals in the field of behavioral science, preferably with a focus on public health, sanitation and hygiene.

The consultant should have experience in leading and facilitating participatory formative research, must be fluent in Bahasa Indonesia and able to write reports in English.

Duration of The Contract
It is expected that the contract is starting from 13 March 2017 through to 16 June 2017

The consultant will report to the Technical Project Officer Advocacy WASH and CSOs partner in project location, under the supervision of the V4C programme manager.

Application Process
SNV's General Terms and Conditions guide this TOR. The proposed experts for undertaking assignment cannot be changed during the study period without prior approval of SNV. The proposal should include:

  • A draft research protocol (of no more than 2 pages) 
  • Complete proposal of the research, which is inform:
  • Research Timeline
  • Team member and qualification
  • Budget proposal
  • Terms of payment service

Applicants should send application to SNV Procurement (email: and Cahyo Putranto (email: by March 7th 2017 at the latest with subject: "SANIFOAM Research".

Only shortlisted candidates will be contacted

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